Other IVM Interventions
Source reduction – limited application in urban settings – larviciding and environmental management
Larviciding and Environmental Management:
These two approaches will require further policy and strategy development
Larval control operations and the methods and materials employed are very varied. The methods applied must be carefully matched to the specific problems. Knowledge of local conditions, the vectors and their biology, the type of water and the extend, accessibility of larval sources must be available to plan successful programmes.
Most of the drains or puddles of stagnant water are found to contain Anopheles larvae. The choice of chemical for treatment is temephos (abate), an organophosph insecticide. The advantage of using this is that it is less toxic to mammalian species and also can be applied to water bodies used for drinking purposes. WHO has recommended temephos for global use. Nigeria was using this chemical in early 1970 – 1980s but discontinued due to lack of funding.
During the Guinea worm eradication programme, it was found very useful at 1mg/1 and communities did not complain of smell, taste or side effects after use.
Other most effective biodegradable larvicides are Bacillus thuringensis israelensis (Bti) and B.Sphericus (BS). In contrast to sanitation methods, larvicides normally have little residual effect, thus it requires regular and frequent applications.