Promoting the Scaling up Integrated Vector Management (IVM) in Nigeria
Integrated Vector Management (IVM) as recommended by WHO/AFRO is the main vector control strategy in Nigeria. The concept of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) is built on selected vector control strategies and it involves the targeted use of different vector control methods alone or in combination to prevent or reduce vector populations and human- vector contact cost-effectively and in a sustainable manner. This is certainly in consonance with the RBM multiple vector control strategies. In carrying out IVM, efforts are made to apply environmentally sound interventions.
In terms of inter-sectoral collaboration, line Ministries such as Agriculture, Water Resources, Environment, Information, Works and Housing, Education, Universities, Research Institutes are involved in the implementation of IVM in the country.
The general objective of Integrated Vector Management is the reduction of vector-borne disease particularly, malaria morbidity and mortality, through the prevention, reduction and or interruption of disease transmission, via the utilization of multiple control measures in a compatible manner.
- To reduce vector breeding sites to the strictest minimum and within the shortest possible time.
- To reduce abundance and sustenance of disease vectors to a minimal level at which transmission is no longer effective
- To reduce human-vector contact.
Components of IVM include:
- The use of personal protective measures such as:
- Long Lasting Insecticidal nets (LLINs)
- Wearing of protective clothings
- Use of repellents which appear in various forms.
- Chemical control such as:
- Indoor Residual Spraying.
- Outdoor spraying
- Environmental Control Measures
- Biological Control Measures.
Other IVM Interventions
Source reduction – limited application in urban settings – larviciding and environmental management
Larviciding and Environmental Management:
These two approaches will require further policy and strategy development
Larval control operations and the methods and materials employed are very varied. The methods applied must be carefully matched to the specific problems. Knowledge of local conditions, the vectors and their biology, the type of water and the extend, accessibility of larval sources must be available to plan successful programmes.
Most of the drains or puddles of stagnant water are found to contain Anopheles larvae. The choice of chemical for treatment is temephos (abate), an organophosph insecticide. The advantage of using this is that it is less toxic to mammalian species and also can be applied to water bodies used for drinking purposes. WHO has recommended temephos for global use. Nigeria was using this chemical in early 1970 – 1980s but discontinued due to lack of funding.
During the Guinea worm eradication programme, it was found very useful at 1mg/1 and communities did not complain of smell, taste or side effects after use.
Other most effective biodegradable larvicides are Bacillus thuringensis israelensis (Bti) and B.Sphericus (BS). In contrast to sanitation methods, larvicides normally have little residual effect, thus it requires regular and frequent applications.
- Systemic reduction of mosquito production
- To reduce either alone or in combination with other methods, the density of adult vector mosquitoes
- To distribute a quantity of chemical evenly in or on the surface of the water of mosquito breeding places and to expose all the larvae to a predetermined toxic dosage.
Reduction by 80% breeding places of mosquitoes in selected areas.
Larviciding are applied in selected areas putting into consideration the operational feasibility of the intervention. Emphasis is on deployment of insecticides that are environmentally friendly in order to prevent the pollution of portable water and harmful effects to non-target organisms. In this respect therefore, Bacillus thuriengensis (Bti) formulations which are biocides and environmentally friendly are the major insecticide to be used. Pilot trials of larviciding shall be carried out in some parts of country, the outcome of which shall inform the decision for a nation-wide scale up.
The types of lavicides to be utilised will range from chemical formulations to microbial formulations such as Abate, Larvex 100, Agnique, Monomolecular Surface Film (MMF), i, Bacillus thuringensis israelensis (Bti), Bacillus sphericus (Bs)
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